CEPF
Protecting Nature's Hotspots for people and prosperity

Eastern Arc Mountains & Coastal Forests

Tab 1

Overview
Kirk's red colobus, Zanzibar

CEPF is no longer active in this region.

The Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests region stretches along the Tanzanian and Kenyan coasts from the border with Somalia to the Mozambican border. Previously classified as a biodiversity hotspot itself, this region now lies within two newly classified hotspots: the Eastern Afromontane Hotspot and the Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Hotspot.

Most of the region is in Tanzania, which takes in the Eastern Arc Mountains and the Rufiji water catchment. However, a narrow hook near the Kenya/Tanzania border follows the Eastern Arc Mountains to their northernmost limits in the Taita Hills in Kenya. The region also extends north to include the forests of the Lower Tana River in Kenya, and includes the Indian Ocean islands of Mafia, Pemba and Zanzibar.

The two distinct habitats of the Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests are notably fragmented, making threatened species within key sites highly vulnerable to extinction and further habitat loss. Agricultural encroachment, timber extraction and charcoal production are among the greatest threats.

Our support focuses on 160 sites that shelter the region's 333 globally threatened species. These species include, for example, the Endangered Zanzibar or Kirk’s red colobus (Procolobus kirkii) pictured above and found only in Zanzibar’s Jozani Forest.

Cry of the Forest
Documentary about efforts to protect what remains of the incredibly rich montane and coastal forests of East Africa through a grants program by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. Nike Doggart from the Tanzania Forest Conservation Group organised, co-produced and narrated. Michele Menegon provided amazing nature footage.​​​​​

Tab 2

Strategy
Ndundulu Forest, Udzungwas

 

Our investment in the Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests began in July 2003 to improve knowledge and appreciation of biodiversity among the local populations and stimulate support for conservation. In conjunction with this, a commitment to scientific best practices sought to improve biological knowledge in the region and show practical applications of conservation science.

 

Guided by an ecosystem profile developed with stakeholders, our investment focuses on conserving the region's globally threatened species and the 160 sites where they are found. Key parts of the strategy focus on select sites for maximum impact and on the linkages between people and conservation. Five strategic directions guide our approach:

  1. Increase the ability of local populations to benefit from and contribute to biodiversity conservation, especially in and around Lower Tana River Forests, Taita Hills, East Usambaras/Tanga, Udzungwas and Jozani Forest
  2. Restore and increase connectivity among fragmented forest patches, especially in Lower Tana River Forests, Taita Hills, East Usambaras/Tanga and Udzungwas
  3. Improve biological knowledge
  4. Establish a small grants program that focuses on Critically Endangered species and small-scale efforts to increase connectivity of biologically important habitat patches
  5. Develop and support efforts for further fundraising

We are now assessing our initial five years of investment based on experience and lessons learned, including monitoring of final project reports compiled by the many civil society groups supported. A workshop with stakeholders to contribute to the findings took  place in February 2009.

Tab 3

Priorities
CEPF STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS CEPF INVESTMENT PRIORITIES
1.  Increase the ability of local populations to benefit from and contribute to biodiversity conservation, especially in and around Lower Tana River Forests; Taita Hills; East Usambaras/Tanga; Udzungwas; and Jozani Forest 1.1  Evaluate community-based forest management initiatives in the hotspot to determine best practices
1.2  Promote nature-based, sustainable businesses that benefit local populations
1.3  Explore possibilities for direct payments and easements (Conservation Concessions) for biodiversity conservation and support where appropriate
1.4  Build the capacity of community-based organizations for advocacy in support of biodiversity conservation at all levels
1.5  Support cultural practices that benefit biodiversity
1.6  Research and promote eco-agricultural options for the local populations
2.  Restore and increase connectivity among fragmented forest patches in the hotspot, especially in Lower Tana River Forests; Taita Hills; East Usambaras/Tanga; and Udzungwas 2.1  Assess potential sites in the hotspot for connectivity interventions
2.2  Support initiatives that maintain or restore connectivity
2.3  Monitor and evaluate initiatives that maintain or restore connectivity
2.4  Support best practices for restoring connectivity in ways that also benefit people
3.  Improve biological knowledge (all eligible sites) 3.1  Refine and implement a standardized monitoring program across the eligible sites
3.2  Support research in the less studied of the eligible sites
3.3  Monitor populations of Critically Endangered and Endangered secies
3.4  Support research in the hotspot to facilitate Red List assessments and re-assessments for plants, reptiles, invertebrates and other taxa
3.5  Compile and document indigenous knowledge on sites and species
3.6  Support awareness programs that increase public knowledge of biodiversity values
4.  Establish a small grants program (all eligible sites) that focuses on Critically Endangered species and small-scale efforts to increase connectivity of biologically important habitat patches 4.1  Support targeted efforts to increase connectivity of biologically important habitat patches
4.2  Support efforts to increase biological knowledge of the sites and to conserve Citically Endangered species
5.  Develop and support efforts for further fundraising for the region 5.1  Establish a professional resource mobilization unit, within an appropriate local partner institution, for raising long-term funds and resources for the region
5.2  Utilize high-level corporate contacts to secure funding from the private sector
5.3  Train local NGOs and community-based organizations in fundraising and proposal writing

Tab 4

Maps
Eastern ARC and Coastal Forests biodiversity hotspot

 

 

Forest Cover and Change data on CI's Learning Network: Kenya c.1990-c.2000 (WinZip File - 6 MB)

 


Forest Cover and Change data on CI's Learning Network: Tanzania c.1990-c.2000 (WinZip File - 10 MB)

 

More Maps

Conservation Outcomes and Priority Areas for CEPF Investment, Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Tanzania and Kenya. Map (PDF - 4.3 MB)

1990 - 2000 Forest Cover and Change in Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests. Map (PDF - 5.8 MB)

Tab 5

Documents
Core Documents

 

Monitoring & Evaluation
  • Final Assessment Report
    Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal F​orests of Tanzania and Kenya, January 2011- May 2015​
    English (PDF - 500 KB)

  • Biodiversity Status and Trends Report for the Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Kenya and Tanzania Region - 2012, BirdLife International
    English (PDF - 3.6 MB)

  • Assessing Five Years of CEPF Investment in the Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Tanzania and Kenya, June 2009 
    English (PDF - 210 KB)

  • CEPF and Poverty Reduction: A Review of the CEPF Portfolio in the Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Tanzania and Kenya Region, January 2008
    English (PDF 316 KB)

  • Annual Analysis of the CEPF Project Portfolio

    - 2006
    English (PDF - 237 KB)

    - 2005
    English (PDF - 456 KB)

    - 2004
    English (PDF - 1.1 MB)

  • Portfolio Overview, as of March 2005
    English (PDF - 215 KB)

    - Full related briefing book
    English (PDF - 3.5 MB)

  • Workshop Reports on Lessons Learned

    - Increasing the Ability of Local Populations to Benefit From and Contribute to Biodiversity Conservation (SD1)
    English (PDF - 1.5 MB), November 2007

    - Restoring and Increasing Connectivity (SD2)
    English (PDF - 817 KB), September 2006

    - Improving Biological Knowledge (SD3)
    English (PDF - 1 MB), June 2006

  • Project Final Reports
    Reports compiled by project leaders detailing final results and lessons learned
    View reports

 

Newsletters
  • The Arc Journal, Tanzania Forest Conservation Group

    - Issue 23, March 2009 (Assessing CEPF's Legacy)
    English (PDF - 4.1 MB)

    - Issue 22, November 2008 (CEPF's Students Grants Program)
    English (PDF - 4.1 MB)

    - Issue 21, September 2007 (Participatory Forest Management)
    English (PDF - 3 MB)

    - Issue 20, March 2007 (CEPF Investment Overview)
    English (PDF - 2.58 MB)

  • Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests Email Update

    - Vol. 6, May 2008
    English (PDF - 387 KB)

    - Vol. 5, October 2007
    English (PDF - 473 KB)

    - Vol. 4, July 2007
    English (PDF - 808 KB)

    - Vol. 3, April 2007
    English (PDF - 154 KB)

     


Other Publications

  • "Vanishing wildlife corridors and options for restoration: a case study from Tanzania," Mongabay.com Open Access Journal - Tropical Conservation Science, Vol.5 (4):463-474, 2012
    English (PDF - 1 MB)

  • The primates of the Udzungwa Mountains: diversity, ecology and conservation
    English (PDF - 2 MB), Journal of Anthropological Sciences

  • Conservation status, connectivity, and options for improved management of southern Forest Reserves in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania: urgent need for intervention
    English (PDF - 949 KB), Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali

  • Distribution of the Potto Perodicticus potto (Primates: Lorisidae) in Eastern Africa, with a Description of a New Subspecies from Mount Kenya
    English (PDF - 1.4 MB), Thomas M. Butynski and Yvonne A. de Jong

  • Does the Afrotropical Army Ant Dorylus (Anomma) Molestus Go Extinct in Fragmented Forests?
    English (PDF - 419 KB), Journal of East African Natural History

  • Ecological Report on Magombera Forest
    English (PDF - 4.6 MB), World Wide Fund for Nature

  • Filling the Knowledge Gap: Surveys of Poorly Known Sites and Species in the Eastern Arc and Coastal Forests of Tanzania
    English (PDF -  795 KB)

  • Evaluation of Participatory Forest Management Initiatives (PFMI) around Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Zanzibar, June 2006
    English (PDF - 612 KB), CARE International

  • Forest Health Monitoring in the Ngangao Forest, Taita Hills, Kenya: A Five Year Assessment of Change
    English (PDF - 289 KB)
    Journal of East African Natural History 97(1): 3–17 (2008)

  • Forestry, governance and national development: Lessons learned from a logging boom in southern Tanzania
    English (PDF - 5.4 MB), TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa
    - Summary Overview (PDF - 1.6 MB)

  • Preliminary Assessment of Carbon Storage & the Potential for Forestry Based Carbon Offset Projects in the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest 2005
    English (PDF - 427 KB), International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology

  • Preliminary Assessment of Carbon Storage & the Potential for Forestry Based Carbon Offset Projects in the Lower Tana River Forests: the Tana Delta Irrigation Project and the Tana River National Primate Reserve 2005
    English (PDF - 404 KB), International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology

  • Restoration and Increase of Connectivity among Fragmented Forest Patches in the Taita Hills, south-east Kenya
    English (PDF - 2.9 MB), Ghent Univerity

  • Socioeconomic Baseline Assessment of Villages Adjacent to Magombera Forest
    English (PDF - 484 KB), World Wide Fund for Nature

  • Socio-Economic Study of Forest-Adjacent Communities from Nyanganje Forest to Udzungwa Scarp: A Potential Wildlife Corridor
    English (PDF - 449 KB), World Wide Fund for Nature - Tanzania Programme Office

  • Workshop Proceedings: Conservation and Management of the Southern Udzungwa Mountains: The Way Forward
    English (PDF - 728 KB), March 23, 2007
​​

Tab 6

 
 
 
 
Fast Facts

Status: Closed

Initial investment:

  • $7 million
  • 2004-2009
  • 103 grants

Consolidation:

  • $1.75 million
  • 2011-2014
  • 11 grants​

Regional Resources
 
 
Photos: Kirk's red colobus © Anup Shah/npl/Minden Pictures; Ndundulu Forest, Udzungwas © Francesco Rovero