CEPF
Protecting Nature's Hotspots for people and prosperity

Wallacea

Tab 1

Overview
Man in boat at sunset Timor-Leste
Man in boat at sunset, Timor-Leste. © WWF/Tory Read 

CEPF is active in ​the Wallacea Biodiversity Hotspot.

Wallacea is a hotspot in central Indonesia and Timor-Leste in Southeast Asia with a total land area of 33.8 million hectares. The region’s thousands of islands support highly diverse biological communities with many unique species—more than half of the mammals, 40 percent of the birds and 65 percent of the amphibians found in Wallacea do not occur outside the hotspot. Many of these species are endemic not only to the hotspot but also to single islands or mountains within it. Such species are highly vulnerable to habitat loss, hunting, collection and other pressures. As a result, Wallacea has 308 terrestrial and freshwater species classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as globally threatened, and many more species for which data is inadequate to allow full assessment of their status.

Along with neighboring New Guinea, the Wallacea region has more marine species than anywhere else on the planet, and it forms the heart of the Coral Triangle. Of these marine species, 252 are classified as threatened with extinction by IUCN, many of them corals, which are vulnerable to the combined effects of bleaching, sedimentation and pollution as well as destructive fishing practices. ​

No location in Wallacea is further than 100 kilometers from the coast, and the fragmentation of the region into so many islands has had a defining influence on the social, political and economic landscapes. The majority of the region’s 30 million people live in coastal areas, and many still derive their living from farms, forests and wetlands inland, as well as the sea; however, the region is changing rapidly. Makassar, a city of more than a million people, is the center of economic development in eastern Indonesia, and another four cities—Ambon, Manado, Mataram and Kupang—are nearing populations of 500,000. For centuries, these cities have been centers for the export of natural resources from Wallacea. Originally these were sandalwood, nutmeg and cloves, but now copra, coffee, minerals, timber and fish are the main exports.

Coastal and inland customary (traditional) communities have developed a variety of mechanisms for controlling and managing their natural resources. The nature of resource use, has been changed in ways that are beyond the control of local rules, by population growth, immigration, and the government’s allocation of land for the development of large-scale plantations, logging and mining concessions. 

Formal mechanisms for the planning and enforcement of rules on the exploitation of natural resources have generally failed to deliver efficient or sustainable outcomes. Limited capacity, lack of political will, poor monitoring and conflicts between customary and formal resource management regimes have conspired to create a situation in which opportunistic, short-term and often illegal natural resource exploitation by companies and individuals predominates, with carefully planned and managed sustainable use the exception.

To increase the chance of success, it is important that actions supported by CEPF complement existing strategies and programs of national governments, donors and other stakeholders. To this end, before starting a grant-making program, CEPF works with local stakeholders to develop an ecosystem profile for the hotspot. The ecosystem profile identifies CEPF’s niche to support a diversity of civil society organizations with varying levels of capacity to achieve conservation outcomes and environmental sustainability within the increasingly important national agendas of economic growth. Building from the niche, the profile identifies biogeographic and thematic priorities for support.
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Tab 2

Strategy

Male wrasse (Cirrhilabrus tonozukai), Atauro Island. © Gerald Allen
Of 560 globally threatened species, CEPF will support actions to address the conservation of 22 terrestrial and 207 marine species (including 176 corals) that require ​specific actions beyond site conservation because they are overharvested for trade and consumption or they are vulnerable to other threats.

CEPF will support actions for the conservation of KBAs and corridors in eight priority areas: 
  • Terrestrial and marine KBAs in the North Sulawesi (Sangihe-Talaud) Islands. 
  • Lake Poso (Sulawesi).
  • Central Sulawesi lakes.
  • Terrestrial KBAs in South Sulawesi.
  • Terrestrial and marine KBAs in Flores and the Solor–Alor island group.
  • Terrestrial KBAs on Seram, Maluku.
  • Terrestrial and marine KBAs on Halmahera and surrounding islands.
  • Terrestrial and marine KBAs in Timor-Leste.
Thematically, CEPF’s grant-making will be guided by seven strategic directions:

1. Address threats to high priority species
2. Improve management of sites (KBAs) with and without official protection status
3. Support sustainable natural resource management by communities in priority sites and corridors
4. Strengthen community-based action to protect marine species and sites
5. Engage the private sector in conservation of priority sites and corridors, in production landscapes, and throughout the hotspot
6. Enhance civil society capacity for effective conservation action in Wallacea
7. Provide strategic leadership and effective coordination of conservation investment through a Regional Implementation Team

Tab 3

Priorities
CEPF STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS CEPF INVESTMENT PRIORITIES
1. Address threats to high priority species 1.1 Provide information to promote species outcomes and allow for monitoring and improved policies and programs of local and national government and other stakeholders

1.2 Change behavior of trappers, traders or buyers through appropriate enforcement, education, incentives and alternatives

2. Improve management of sites (KBAs) with and without official protection status 2.1 Facilitate effective collaboration between CSO, local and indigenous communities and park management units to improve planning and management of official protected areas

2.2 Develop and implement management approaches that integrate sustainable use by business or local stakeholders with conservation of ecosystem values in KBAs outside official protected areas

2.3 Support surveys, research, and awareness campaigns to create new protected areas or better manage KBAs without protection status

2.4 Work with central and local governments on specific legal and policy instruments, including land use plans and development plans, for better site management, and build a constituency of support for their promulgation and implementation

3. Support sustainable natural resource management by communities in priority sites and corridors 3.1 Support community institutions to secure adequate rights over resources, and to develop and implement rules on resource use

3.2 Develop alternatives for livelihoods otherwise dependent on unsustainable resource management practices and enhance markets for sustainably produced products and services

3.3 Propose specific legal and policy instruments to address obstacles to effective community based natural resource management at local or national level

4. Strengthen community-based action to protect marine species and sites 4.1 Support the identification and establishment of new local marine protected areas

4.2 Strengthen local institutions and mechanisms for management and monitoring of marine protected areas

4.3 Support the engagement of local government to increase the financial sustainability and legal effectiveness of local marine protected areas

4.4 Facilitate the sharing of lessons and experiences between stakeholders involved in marine conservation initiatives

5. Engage the private sector in conservation of priority sites and corridors, in production landscapes, and throughout the hotspot 5.1 Engage with the private sector, business associations, and chambers of commerce so that corporate social responsibility (CSR) funding supports the goals of the ecosystem profile

5.2 Encourage mining and plantation companies and their funders and buyers, to consider conservation values in management of concessions and rehabilitation of production areas

5.3 Establish links between CSOs and organizations undertaking campaigns with consumers, financiers, and consumer-facing companies to create market-related incentives and disincentives for private sector to support conservation actions

5.4 Support efforts for mediation or formal engagement with mining and other industry to reduce threats from unlicensed operators or those operating with an illegitimate license

6. Enhance civil society capacity for effective conservation action in Wallacea 6.1 Enhance the capacity of civil society to identify, plan and undertake surveys, planning, implementation, and monitoring of conservation actions

6.2 Catalyze networking and collaboration among community groups, NGOs, private sector, and other elements of civil society

6.3 Increase the volume of sustainable funding available to civil society for conservation actions via capacity building and appropriate mechanisms

7. Provide strategic leadership and effective coordination of conservation investment through a Regional Implementation Team 47.1 Operationalize and coordinate CEPF’s grant-making processes and procedures to ensure effective implementation of the investment strategy throughout the hotspot

7.2 Build a broad constituency of civil society groups working across institutional and political boundaries towards achieving the shared conservation goals described in the ecosystem profile

7.3 Engage governments and the private sector to mainstream biodiversity into policies and business practices

7.4 Monitor the status of biogeographic and sectoral priorities in relation to the long-term sustainability of conservation in the hotspot

7.5 Implement a system for communication and disseminating information on conservation of biodiversity in the hotspot

Tab 4

Maps
Map of the Wallacea Biodiversity HotspotWallacea Biodiversity Hotspot Map


Map of KBAs in Northern Sulawesi
Map of KBAs in Northern Sulawesi​​


Map of KBAs in Central Sulawesi
Map of KBAs in Central Sulawesi​​


Map of KBAs in South and Southeast Sulawesi
Map of KBAs in South and Southeast Sulawesi


Map of KBAs in Northern Maluku
Map of KBAs in Northern Maluku


Map of KBAs in Southern Maluku
Map of KBAs in Southern Maluku


Map of KBAs in Western Lesser Sundas (West Nusa Tenggara)
Map of KBAs in Western Lesser Sundas (West Nusa Tenggara)


Map of KBAs in Eastern Lesser Sundas (Including Timor-Leste)
Map of KBAs in Eastern Lesser Sundas (Including Timor-Leste)


Map of Terrestrial and Marine Corridors in Wallacea
Map of Terrestrial and Marine Corridors in Wallacea


Map of Conservation Outcomes in Timor-Leste
Map of Conservation Outcomes in Timor-Leste

Tab 5

Documents
CORE DOCUMENTS
  • Ecosystem Profile
    English (PDF - 3.6 MB)

  • Ecosystem Profile Summary Brochure
    English​ (PDF - 2.2 MB)

  • Ecosystem Profile Technical Summary
    English​ (PDF - 1.5 MB)
    Bahasa​ (PDF - 1.5 MB)

  • GEF Focal Point Endorsement​
    Indonesia, English (PDF - 662 KB)
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MONITORING AND EVALUATION
  • Annual Portfolio Overview, 2015
    English (PDF - 526 KB)​

  • Annual Portfolio Overview, 2016
    English​ (PDF - 711 KB)

Tab 6

Fast Facts
STATU​S: ACTIVE

Initial investment: 
  • $6 million​
Regional Implementation Team:
B​urung Indonesia​
West Java, Indonesia


Contact:
Adi Widyanto, RIT Manager
hibah.wallacea@burung.org
​​
Address: CEPF Wallacea Regional Implementation Team, Burung Indonesia, Jl. Dadali No. 32 Bogor 16161, West Java, Indonesia

Tel: +62-251-835-7222
Regional Resources
Ecosystem Profile
English (PDF - 3.6 MB)

Ecosystem Profile Technical Summary
English​ (PDF - 1.5 MB)​
Bahasa​ (PDF - 1.5 MB)​
Ecosystem Profile Summary Brochure
- English​ (PDF - 2.2 MB)

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