The Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests cover the central-northern part of the nation of Chile and the far western edge of Argentina, stretching from the Pacific coast to the crest of the Andean mountains. The biodiversity hotspot encompasses about 40 percent of Chile’s land area and includes the offshore islands of San Félix and San Ambrosio, and the Juan Fernández Islands. The area of central-northern Chile is characterized by a winter-rainfall regime, while the northern part of southern Chile is characterized by rainfall all year round. The winter-rainfall area is divided almost equally between a typical Mediterranean-type climate area and a more arid area of winter-rainfall deserts.
Plant, reptilian, amphibian and freshwater fish endemism is high in the hotspot. The hotspot's Endangered monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana) was declared a national monument in 1976, protecting it from logging. The Endangered Andean cat (Leopardus jacobita) and the Near-threatened Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) are also found here.