In the northern part of this biodiversity hotspot, within the Queensland Tropical Rainforests Ecoregion, major threats include invasive species and habitat fragmentation, although substantial areas are now protected in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area.
Fragmentation within forest patches through road and powerline construction also increases the spread of invasive alien species and facilitates the entry of fire. Phytophthora cinnamomi, a highly invasive, soil-borne water mold, has resulted in significant rainforest dieback at some sites. Pollution from agricultural runoff is an additional threat.
Human impact is even higher further south, within the Eastern Australian Temperate Forests Ecoregion. Population density is higher in this part of the hotspot, and major threats are related to ongoing clearing of native vegetation for urban development, introduced species, altered fire regimes, water pollution and schemes for water use.
Threats within protected areas throughout the hotspot include tourism, altered fire regimes, sewage disposal, and invasive plants and animals. Specific threats to amphibians include chytridiomycosis, which is suggested as a cause for a number of recent species extinctions and was first detected as a major threat to amphibians in Queensland in the 1990s.