Information about the Indo-Burma Hotspot was developed using our ecosystem profile (PDF - 34 MB) and the book "Hotspots Revisited."

Amato, G., Egan, M. & Rabinowitz, A. 1999. A new species of muntjac Muntiacus putaoensis (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) from northern Myanmar. Animal Conservation 2:1-7.

Averianov, A.O., Abramov, A.V. & Tikhonov, A.N. 2000. A new species of Nesolagus (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) from Vietnam with osteological description. Contributions from the Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg 3:1-22.

BirdLife International Vietnam Programme and FIPI. 2001. Sourcebook of Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Vietnam. Hanoi: BirdLife International Vietnam Programme & the Forest Inventory and Planning Institute.

BirdLife International. 2003. Saving Asia's Threatened Birds: A Guide for Government and Civil Society. Cambridge, U.K.: BirdLife International.

BirdLife International. 2004. Threatened Birds of the World 2004. CD Rom. Cambridge, U.K.: BirdLife International.

Carew-Reid, J. (Ed.). 2002. Lessons Learned from Protected Areas Management Experience in Thailand: 1992-2001. Country lessons paper prepared for the Review of Protected Areas and their Role in the Socio-economic Development in the Four Countries of the Lower Mekong River Region. Online. Available:

Corbet, G.B. & Hill, J.E.1992. The Mammals of the Indo-Malayan Region: A Systematic Review. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Diamond, J. 1997. Guns, Germs and Steel: A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 Years. Chatto & Windus, U.K.

Dijk, P.P.v., Ashton, P. & Ma, J. 1999. Indo-Burma. In R.A. Mittermeier, N. Myers, P. Robles-Gil, & C.G. Mittermeier. (Eds.), Hotspots. pp. 319-334. Mexico City: CEMEX.

Do T., Vu, V.D., Dawson, S., Arctander, P. & MacKinnon, J. 1994. Introduction of a New Large Mammal Species in Vietnam., Hanoi: Forest Inventory and Planning Institute. (In Vietnamese.)

Duckworth, J. W., Salter, R. E. & Khounboline, K. (Compilers). 1999. Wildlife in Lao P.D.R.: 1999 Status Report. Vientiane: IUCN, Wildlife Conservation Society and the Centre for Protected Areas and Watershed Management.

Dung, V.V., Pham, M.G., Nguyen, N.C., Do, T. & MacKinnon, J. 1994. Discovery and conservation of the Vu Quang ox in Vietnam. Oryx 28:16-21.

Giao, P.M., Tuoc, D., Dung, V.V., Wikramanayake, E.D., Amato, G., Arctander, P. & MacKinnon, J.R. 1998. Description of Muntiacus truongsonensis, a new species of muntjac (Artiodactyla: Muntiacidae) from central Vietnam, and implications for conservation. Animal Conservation 1:61-68

Gray, D., Piprell, C. & Graham, M. 1994. National Parks of Thailand. 2nd edition. Bangkok: Industrial Finance Corp. Ltd.

Hughes, J. B., Round, P. D. & Woodruff, D. S. 2003. The Indochinese–Sundaic faunal transition at the Isthmus of Kra: An analysis of resident forest bird species distributions. Journal of Biogeography 30:569-580.

Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yáñez, S. (Eds.). 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monograph. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75:i-vii, 1-1181.

Kemp, N., Dilger, M., Burgess, N. & Dung, C.V. 1997. The saola Pseudoryx nghetinhensis in Vietnam: New information on distribution and habitat preferences, and conservation needs. Oryx 31: 37-45.

Kottelat, M. 1989. Zoogeography of fishes from Indochinese inland waters, with an annotated check-List. Bulletin Zoölogisch Museum Universiteit van Amsterdam.Vol. 12 (1): 1-55.

Mackinnon, J. (Ed.). 1997. Protected Areas Systems Review of the Indo-Malayan Realm. Asian Bureau of Conservation and World Conservation Monitoring Centre for the World Bank.

Mackinnon, J., Sha, M., Cheung, C., Carey, G., Zhu, X. & Melville, D. 1996. A Biodiversity Review of China. Hong Kong: WWF International.

Mittermeier, R. A., Konstant, W. R., Rylands, A. B., Ganzhorn, J., Oates, J. F., Butynski, T. M., Nadler, T., Supriatna, J., Padua, C. V. & Rambaldi, D. 2002. Primates in Peril: The World's Top 25 Most Endangered Primates. Washington, D.C.: Conservation International, Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, IUCN-SSC Primate Specialist Group and International Primatological Society.

Nadler, T. 1997. A new subspecies of douc langur, Pygathrix nemaeus cinereus ssp. nov. Zool. Garten N. F.67: 165-176.

Nooren, H. & Claridge, G. 2001. Wildlife Trade in Laos: the End of the Came. Amsterdam: Tropical Rainforest Programme/Netherlands Committee IUCN.

Redford, K.H. 1992. The empty forest. BioScience 42: 412–422.

Robson, C. 2000. A Field Guide to the Birds of Southeast Asia. London, U.K.: New Holland Publishers.

Solheim, W.G., II. 1972. An earlier agricultural revolution. Scientific American. 266 (4): 34-41.

Stamp, L.D. 1925. The Vegetation of Burma from an Ecological Standpoint. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co.

Steenis van, C. G. G. J. 1950. The delimitation of Malesia and its main plant geographical divisions. Flora Malesiana Series1:70-75.

Surridge, A.K., Timmins, R.J., Hewitt, G.M., & Bell, D.J. 1999. Striped rabbits in southeast Asia. Nature 400: 726.

Timmins, R.J., Evans, T.D., Khounboline, K. & Sisomphone, C. 1998. Status and conservation of the giant muntjac Megamuntiacus vuquangensis and notes on other muntjac species in Lao P.D.R. Oryx 32:59-67.

Tordoff, A.W., Tran, Q.B., Nguyen, D.T. & Le Manh, H. (Eds.). 2004. Sourcebook of Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Vietnam. 2nd edition. Hanoi: BirdLife International in Indochina and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.

Whitmore, T.C. (Ed.). 1981. Wallace's Line and Plate Tectonics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Whitmore, T.C. 1984. Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon.

Wikramanayake, E.D., Dinerstein, E., Loucks, C., Olson, D., Morrison, J., Lamoreux, J., McKnight, M., & Hedao, P. (Eds.). 2002. Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: A Conservation Assessment. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Woodruff, D.S. 2003. Neogene marine transgressions, palaeogeography and biogeographic transitions on the Thai-Malay Peninsula. Journal of Biogeography 30:551-567.

Ziegler, T., Herrmann, H.W., David, P., Orlov, N.L. & Pauwels, O.S.G. 2000. Triceratolepidophis sieversorum, a new genus and species of pitviper (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Vietnam. Russian Journal of Herpetology 7:199-214