Information about the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot was developed using the ecosystem profile (PDF - 1.7 MB)—also available in French (PDF - 2.6 MB) and Spanish (PDF - 2.6 MB)—and the book Hotspots Revisited, which cites:

Beard, J.S. 1949. Natural Vegetation of the Windward and Leeward Islands. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Beard, J.S. 1955. The classification of tropical American vegetation types. Ecology 36: 89-100.

Borhidi, A. 1991. Phytogeography and Vegetation Ecology of Cuba. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.

Capote, R.P., Berazaín, R. & Leiva, A. 1989. Cuba. In D.G. Campbell & D. Hammond. (Eds.), Floristic Inventory of Tropical Countries: The Status of Plant Systematics, Collections, and Vegetation, plus Recommendations for the Future. pp. 315-335. New York: The New York Botanical Garden.

Christ, C., Hillel, O., Matus, S. & Sweeting, J. 2003. Tourism and Biodiversity: Mapping Tourism’s Global Footprint. Washington, D.C. and Paris, France: Conservation International & United Nations Environment Programme.

Delgadillo, C., Bello, B. & Cardenas, A. 1995. LATMOSS: A catalogue of neotropical mosses. Monographs in Systematic Botany. Missouri Botanical Garden 56:1-191.

Estrada, A.R. & Hedges, S.B. 1996. At the lower size limit in tetrapods: A new diminutive frog from Cuba (Leptodactylidae: Eleutherodactylus). Copeia 4:852-859.

Graham, A., 2003. Historical phytogeography of the Greater Antilles. Brittonia 55(4):357-383.

Hedges, S.B. 1993. Global amphibian declines: A perspective from the Caribbean. Biodiversity and Conservation 2:290-303.

Hedges, S. B. 1996. The origin of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. In R. Powell & R.W. Henderson. (Eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Hedges, S. B. 1999. Distribution patterns of amphibians in the West Indies. In Duellman, W. E. (Ed.), Regional Patterns of Amphibian Distribution: A Global Perspective. pp. 211-254. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hedges, S. B. 2001. Caribbean Biogeography: An Overview. In C. A. Woods & F. E. Sergile. (Eds.), Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

Hedges, S. B. 2004. Caribherp: West Indian Amphibians and Reptiles. Online. Available:

Harcourt, C.S. & Sayer, J.A. 1996. The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: The Americas. The World Conservation Union. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Harris, D.R. 1965. Plants, Animals, and Man in the Outer Leeward Islands, West Indies: An Ecological Study of Antigua, Barbuda, and Anguilla. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Hoagland, D.B., Horst, G.R. & Kilpatrick, C.W. 1989. Biogeography and population biology of the mongoose in the Caribbean basin. In C.A. Woods. (Ed.), Biogeography of the Caribbean Basin Past, Present, and Future. pp. 611-634. Gainesville, Florida: Sandhill Crane Press Inc.

Lammertink, M. & Estrada, A.R. 1995. Status of the ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis in Cuba: Almost certainly extinct. Bird Conservation International 5:53-60.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., Andelman, S. J., Bakarr, M. I., Boitani, L., Brooks, T. M., Cowling, R. M., Fishpool, L. D. C., Fonseca, G. A. B., Gaston, K. J., Hoffmann, M., Long, J., Marquet, P. A., Pilgrim, J. D., Pressey, R. L., Schipper, J., Sechrest, W., Stuart, S. N., Underhill, L. G., Waller, R. W., Watts, M. E. J. & Xie, Y. 2003. Global gap analysis: Towards a representative network of protected areas. In Advances in Applied Biodiversity Science. Washington, DC: Conservation International.

Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Press.

Thorbjarnarson, J., Messel, H., King, F.W. & Ross, J.P. (Eds.). 1992. Crocodiles: An Action Plan for their Conservation. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group.