Information about the Mediterranean Basin Hotspot was developed using our ecosystem profile (PDF - 1.7 MB) and the book "Hotspots Revisited."

Blondel, J. & Aronson, J. 1999. Biology and Wildlife of the Mediterranean Region. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Crivelli, A. J. 1996. The Freshwater Fish Endemic to the Mediterranean Region. An Action Plan for Their Conservation. Arles: Tour du Valat Publication.

Di Castri, F. & Mooney, H. A. 1973. (Eds.). 1973. Mediterranean-type Eecosystems. Ecological Studies, Vol. 7. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Gómez-Campo, C. (Eds.). 1985. Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Area. Geobotany 7. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk.

Greuter, W. 1991. Botanical diversity, endemism, rarity, and extinction in the mediterranean area: An analysis based on the published volumes of med-checklist. Botanika Chronika 10: 63-79.

Greuter, W. 1994. Extinctions in mediterranean areas. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 344: 41-46.

Hobohm, C. 1999. Plant species diversity and endemism on islands and archipelagos, with special reference to the Macaronesian Islands. Flora 195:9-24.

Médail, F. & Quézel, P. 1999. Biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean Basin: Setting global conservation priorities. Conservation Biology 13: 1510-1513.

Médail, F. & Verlaque, R. 1997. Ecological characteristics and rarity of endemic plants from southeast France and Corsica: Implications for biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation 80: 269-281.

Médail, F. & Quézel, P. 1997. Hot-spots analysis for conservation of plant biodiversity in the Mediterranean basin. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 84:112-127.

Myers, N. & Cowling, R. 1999. Mediterranean Basin. In R.A. Mittermeier, N. Myers & C. Goettsch Mittermeier. (Eds.), Hotspots – Earth's Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions. pp. 254-267. Mexico City: CEMEX & Conservation International.

Naveh, Z. & Kutiel, P. 1990. Changes in the Mediterranean vegetation of Israel in response to human habitation and land use. In G.M. Woodwell. (Ed.), The Earth in Transition: Patterns and Processes of Biotic Impoverishment. pp. 259-299. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Pons, A. & Quézel, P. 1985. The history of the flora and vegetation and past and present human disturbance in the Mediterranean region. In C. Gómes-Campo. (Ed.), Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Area. Geobotany 7. pp. 25-43. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk Publishers.

Quézel, P., 1985. Definition of the Mediterranean region and the origin of its flora. In C. Gómez-Campo. (Ed.), Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Area. pp. 9-24. Dordrecht, The Neatherlands: Dr. W. Junk Publishers.

Quézel P. & Médail F. 2003. Ecologie et Biogéographie des Forêts du Bassin Méditerranéen. Paris: Elsevier, Collection Environnement.

Sulayem, M. 1994. North Africa and the Middle East. In J.A. McNeely, J. Harrison & P. Dingwall. (Eds.), Protecting Nature: Regional Reviews of Protected Areas. pp. 77-99. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN,.

Verdú M., Dávila P., García-Fayos P., Flores-Hernández N. & Valiente-Banuet A. 2003. 'Convergent' traits of Mediterranean woody plants belong to pre-Mediterranean lineages. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 78: 415-427.

Wheeler, A. 1992. Freshwater Fishes of Britain and Europe. London: Rainbow Books, Elsley House.